Beyond the Standard Model
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Or it could have deep implications for our understanding of the universe. The fact that neutrinos have mass gives scientists a powerful way to test whether certain types of sterile neutrinos exist in the first place.
Observing neutrino oscillations in action solved the mystery of why earlier experiments detected only about one-third the expected number of neutrinos from the sun. Scientists discovered neutrino oscillations about 20 years ago, and many experiments since then have confirmed the surprising results. Subsequent experiments have reported mixed results.
The Particle Adventure | Unsolved Mysteries | Beyond the Standard Model
Neutrinos with mass need extra ingredients not found in the Standard Model. One of the simplest additions would be extra neutrinos with a huge mass—far larger than anything that could be made in a particle collider. Those particles would give the normal neutrinos mass, but not participate in oscillations.
In some models, these extra neutrinos come with intriguing bonus predictions, including lower-mass sterile neutrinos. The problem, as Abazajian explains, is that sterile neutrinos of the proper mass to explain the LSND anomaly are inconsistent with many results in cosmology.
That includes the observed arrangement of galaxies known as the large-scale structure of the universe. To make everything work requires rethinking some other theories—and that might be a deal breaker for those particles. Others are looking for sterile neutrinos in other types of detectors. As a result, we should find out in the coming years whether we need a fourth neutrino flavor to explain oscillation results.
The Standard Model and Beyond
Meanwhile, other oscillation experiments will continue to understand what gave neutrinos their mass in the first place—one of the first hints we have had of physics beyond the Standard Model. The question remains: How far beyond known physics will these mysterious particles take us—and what new mysteries will they require us to solve?
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With this increase in activity comes a corresponding need for significantly more computing power. ATLAS collaboration. And you get the number of candidates that we have for the raw data coming off the detector. Then we compare those to different kinds of models and see if we can match up the distributions.
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This provides clues to what might be actually happening during the collisions. The Higgs Boson was the last building block predicted by the Standard Model, which explains three of the four fundamental forces in the universe, but not gravity.
However it is likely not the end of the story.